Mastery of pragmatics allows children to change styles of speech, or linguistic codes, depending on their audience. Each code includes many aspects of language: tone, pronunciations, gestures, sentence length, idioms, vocabulary, and grammar.

Formal code (used in academic contexts), and Informal code (used with friends)

 The use of informal or formal could also depend in area, as well as with whomever you are communicating to. One of my personal examples are as a military recruiter. As a military recruiter, we worked out of different schools; each school areas, and locations were different such as social status. Out of the four schools I recruited out of, some were high class; some middle, and some low. In each school I had different approaches with the kids, as wells as different approaches with the staff, and parents. In my higher class schools I had to use a much more formal code, due to higher class students, and having to relate to them. Not using the formal code, and approaching the children, as well as the parents in a informal way they would look down on me, and i wouldn’t get much accomplish in that school. In my middle, and lower class schools I had much more of a different approach, and language used. It’s like changing faces; in my much more lower class schools, I used different terms or possibly “slang” to relate to that targeted crowd, and staff.

 A shorter breakdown, and good comparison of the two would be during a job interview. During a job interview a person would use more of an formal code, compared to a code used with peers. Communicating with peers, one would use an informal code; which is more laid back, and language, and terms used aren’t as stressed. During the informal code a person could be themselves, and not have to stress to use correct pronunciations of words.


Define low-risk and high-risk pregnancies. What is the significance of infant birth weight in terms of the child’s future health?

According to chapter 15; page 484 of Understanding Nutrition; low-risk, and high-risk pregnancy is defined as followed

Low-risk pregnancy – A pregnancy characterized by factors that make it likely the birth will be normal and the infant healthy

High-risk pregnancy – A pregnancy characterized by risk factors that make it likely the birth will be surrounded by problems such as premature delivery, difficult birth, restricted growth, birth defects, and early infant death

According to chapter 15; page 485 of Understanding Nutrition 13e; Low-birth weight infants are more likely to experience complications during delivery than normal-weight babies. They also have a statistically greater chance of having physical and mental birth defects, becoming ill, and dying early in life. Of infants who die before their first birthdays, about two-thirds were low-birth weight newborns. Very-low-birth weight infants (31/2 pounds or less) struggle not only for their immediate physical health and survival, but for their future cognitive development and abilities as well

Bonus information

According to chapter 15; page 484 of Understanding Nutrition 13e; A high-risk pregnancy is likely to produce an infant with low birth weight. Low-birth weight infants, defined as infants who weigh 5 1/2 pounds or less, are classified according to their gestational age. Preterm infants are born before they are fully developed; they are often underweight and have trouble breathing because their lungs are immature. Preterm infants may be small, but if their size and weight are appropriate for their gestational age, they can catch up in growth given adequate nutrition support. In contrast, small- for-gestational- age infants have suffered growth failure in the uterus and do not catch up as well. For the most part, survival improves with increased gestational age and birthweight.

List calcium’s roles in the body. How does the body keep blood calcium constant regardless of intake?

According to Chapter 12; page 384-385 Ninety-nine percent of the body’s calcium is in the bones (and teeth), where it plays two roles. First, it is an integral part of bone structure providing a rigid frame that holds the body upright and serves as attachment points for muscles, making motion possible. Second, it serves as a calcium bank, offering a readily available source of calcium to the body fluids should a drop in blood calcium occur. The remaining 1 percent of the body’s calcium is in the body fluids.

As bones begin to form, calcium salts form crystals, called hydroxyapatite, on a matrix of the protein collagen. During mineralization, as the crystals become denser, they give strength and rigidity to the maturing bones. As a result, the long leg bones of children can support their weight by the time they have learned to walk.

Many people have the idea that once a bone is built, it is inert like a rock. Actually, the bones are gaining and losing minerals continuously in an ongoing process of remodeling. Growing children gain more bone than they lose, and healthy adults maintain a reasonable balance. When withdrawals substantially exceed deposits, problems such as osteoporosis develop.

The formation of teeth follows a pattern similar to that of bones. The turnover of minerals in teeth is not as rapid as in bone, however; fluoride hardens and stabilizes the crystals of teeth, opposing the withdrawal of minerals from them.

Although only 1 percent of the body’s calcium circulates in the extracellular and intracellular fluids, its presence there is vital to life. Cells throughout the body can detect calcium in the extracellular fluids and respond accordingly. Many of calcium’s actions help to maintain normal blood pressure, perhaps by stabilizing the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels or by releasing relaxing factors from the blood vessel cell walls. Extracellular calcium also participates in blood clotting.

The calcium in intracellular fluids binds to proteins within the cells and activates them. For example, when the protein calmodulin binds with calcium, it activates the enzymes involved in breaking down glycogen, which releases energy for muscle contractions. Many such proteins participate in the regulation of muscle contractions, the transmission of nerve impulses, the secretion of hormones, and the activation of some enzyme reactions.

How does the body keep blood calcium constant regardless of intake?

According to Chapter 12 page 385-386 section of “Calcium Balance”; Whenever blood calcium falls too low or rises too high, three organ systems respond: intestines, bones, and kidneys. Vitamin D and two hormones – parathyroid hormone and calcitonin return blood calcium to normal.

The calcium in bones provides a nearly inexhaustible bank of calcium for the blood. The blood borrows and returns calcium as needed so that even with an inadequate diet, blood calcium remains normal—even as bone calcium diminishes. Blood calcium changes only in response to abnormal regulatory control, not to diet. A person can have an inadequate calcium intake for years and have no noticeable symptoms. Only later in life does it become apparent that bone integrity has been compromised.

Blood calcium above normal results in calcium rigor: the muscles contract and cannon relax. Similarly, blood calcium below normal cause’s calcium tetany—also characterized by uncontrolled muscle contraction. These contractions do not reflect a dietary excess or lack of calcium; they are caused by a lack of vitamin D or by abnormal secretion of the regulatory hormones. A chronic dietary deficiency of calcium, or a chronic deficiency due to poor absorption over the years, depletes the bones. Again: the bones, not the blood, are robbed by a calcium deficiency

The stomach’s acidity helps to make the calcium binding protein needed for absorption. This relationship explains why calcium rich milk is a good choice for vitamin D fortification.

Whenever calcium is needed, the body increases its calcium absorption

What foods provide starches and fibers?

According to chapter 4; page 95-100 of Whitney|Rofles “Understanding Nutrition” 13 edition

All starchy foods come from plants. Grains are the richest food source of starch, providing much of the food energy for people all over the world—rice in Asia; wheat in Canada, the United States, and Europe; corn in much of Central and South America; and millet, rye, barley, and oats elsewhere. Legumes and tubers are also important sources of starch.

Dietary fivers are the structural parts of plants and thus are found in all plant-derived foods– vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. Most dietary fibers are polysaccharides. As mentioned earlier, starches are also polysaccharides, but dietary fivers differ from starches in that the bonds between their monosaccharides cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes in the body. For this reason, dietary fibers are often described as nonstarch polysaccharides.

Even though most foods contain a variety of fibers, researchers often sort dietary fibers into two groups according to their solubility. Such distinctions help to explain their actions in the body.

Some dietary fibers dissolve in water (soluble fibers), form gels (viscous), and are easily digested by bacteria in the colon (fermentable).** Commonly found in oats, barley, legumes, and citrus fruits, soluble fibers are most often associated with protecting against heart disease and diabetes by lowering blood cholesterol and glucose levels, respectively.

Other fibers do not dissolve in water (insoluble fibers), do not form gels (non-viscous), and are less readily fermented. Found mostly in whole grains (bran) and vegetables, insoluble fibers promote bowel movements, alleviate constipation, and prevent diverticular disease.

As mentioned, dietary fibers occur naturally in plants. When these fibers have been extracted from plants or are manufactured and then added to foods or used in supplements, they are called functional fibers–if they have beneficial health effects. Cellulose in cereals, for example, is a dietary fiber, but when consumed as a supplement to alleviate constipation, cellulose is considered a functional fiber.

A few starches are classified as dietary fibers. Known as resistant starches, these starches escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Starch may resist digestion for several reasons, including the body’s efficiency in digesting starches and the foods physical properties. Resistant starch is common in whole or partially milled grains, legumes, and just ripened bananas. Cooked potatoes, pasta, and rice that have been chilled also contain resistant starch. Similar to insoluble fibers, resistant starch may support a healthy colon.

The body is never tired

  • 4. 310XTGARMIN

“Now if you are going to win any battle you have to do one thing. You have to make the mind run the body. Never let the body tell the mind what to do. The body will always give up. It is always tired in the morning, noon and night. But the body is never tired if the mind is not tired.”
— George S Patton

Fitz and the Tantrums

Other than running and biking, music is one of my number 1 cures! It cheers me up instantly; putting me in a happy-go-lucky mood. I love all types, but the main ones that boost my mood are music by Ellie Golding, Beegees, and Stevie Nicks. 

Last night, while driving home from work, i found the name of one that I’m falling in love with. It came on, and i listened to the lyrics and instantly voice text it with “ok google”. A song popped up, and i clicked on it instantly while waiting at a stop light. Once confirming that it was the song, i listened to it during my whole entire ride home. I even replayed it a few times, and of course sang it ♡

The song is “Moneygrabber” by Fitz And The Tantrums

Fleece by Express; jeans by Levis! I could have a closet full of strauss & co jeans and still be very satisfied with clothes. They are amazing!

Burn It Up

While riding the Chicago “L” to school this song just popped in my head. Not sure why, but I’m sitting here reflecting on these next few weeks, and what classes i have left towards my degree. I have three classes left towards my degree in counseling. In my head I’m planning what i need to accomplish while on break this summer. Earlier i set my first job interview, but hope to set more. It’s my first summer semester off, without any classes.